Broadly speaking, goal of this research is to investigate the impact of environmental regulation on economic performances in the U.S. manufacturing sector. Researchers' findings vary from negative impact to positive one. This lack of consensus along with availability of large set of data motivates the long-run industry-level study to look into the dynamics of regulation-performance relationship from 1958 to 2005. Variables related to health and environmental regulations have been collected from EPA's Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures survey, and OSHA's Management Information System. NBER Manufacturing Productivity database is the source of the variables related to industrial economic performance. Ordinary least squares procedure reveals bigger effects for EPA than OSHA, and smaller/less significant contributions to productivity in later periods. Evidence has also been provided to indicate that pollution-abatement spending only affected the measurement of productivity growth, with no real effect on the productivity of inputs actually used in production.
Evidence show that many firms are subject to intense public scrutiny with the increasing environmental consciousness in society. In response, management research and conceptual thinking on environmental issues has expanded from a narrow focus on the concept of pollution control to a broader concept of being socially responsible that combines environmental issues into functional considerations. The potential link between economic performance and environmental regulation and so corporate social responsibility works as a motivation to examine the determinants of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Data on CSR rating comes from CSRHUB and Justmeans for cross-section and panel analyses, respectively. Firm-level productivity and financial data comes from COMPUSTAT. This essay involves performing probit, OLS, fixed-effects, quantile, and Chow procedures. The major finding of this essay is that bigger firms show better CSR performance.
Third and last essay of this study explores plant-level data on enforcement, compliance, and emission of pollutants with air pollution regulation to test whether enforcement is effective in inducing plants to comply, whether certain types of plants are more influenced by enforcement behavior, and to determine what other firm characteristics are associated with compliance covering the 1994–2002 period applying OLS, fixed-effects, logit, tobit, and Chow test procedures. Plant-level measures of air pollution enforcement activity, compliance status, and emissions of air pollutants during that period come from several EPA databases and firm-level data productivity comes from the COMPUSTAT. Results suggest that plants associated with firms that are making more profit or have more of any immediately negotiable medium of exchange emit less toxic inventory and air pollutants. Plants in violation with "voluntary compliance"as represented by TRI emissions are significantly less likely to comply with air pollution regulations, and plants owned by the firms specializing in paper and allied product or petroleum and coal product are less sensitive to other enforcement activity. http://gradworks.umi.com/34/86/3486395.html